Browse a full set of economic indicators


Includes Japan real Gross Domestic Product growth rate, with latest forecasts and historical data, GDP per capita, GDP composition and breakdown by sector.

Browse additional economic indicators and data sets, selected by Global Finance editors, to learn more about Japan economic outlook, debt to GDP ratio, international trade performance and population trends. Rankings of Japan best banks and safest banks are also available.

Basic Information

Government Type: Parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital City: Tokyo

GDP & Economic Information

Macroeconomy & Sovereign Data

Central Bank Bank of Japan
Currency Yen (JPY)

International Reserves
USD 1,271 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019
Gross Domestic Product – GDP USD 4,971.9 billion (2018, estimate)
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) Intl$ 5,594.5 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP Data

Real GDP growth 2007 1.7%
2008 -1.1%
2009 -5.4%
2010 4.2%
2011 -0.1%
2012 1.5%
2013 2%
2014 0.4%
2015 1.2%
2016 0.6%
2017 1.9%
2018* 0.8%
GDP per capita – current prices SD 39,305.8 (2018, estimate)
GDP per capita – PPP Intl$ 44,227.2 (2018, estimate)
GDP (PPP) – share of world total 1980 7.79%
1990 8.89%
2000 6.66%
2010 4.94%
2019* 4.0%
GDP – composition by sector agriculture: 1.2%
industry: 29.1%
services: 69.1%
(2016 estimate)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)
3.2% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019
Inflation 2015 0.8%
2016 -0.1%
2017 0.5%
2018* 1%
2019* 1%

Inflation & Debt

Inflation 2015 0.8%
2016 -0.1%
2017 0.5%
2018* 1%
2019* 1%
Government Bond Ratings Standard & Poor’s: A+

Moody’s: A1

Standard & Poor’s / Moody’s
Unemployment rate
2015: 3.4%
2016: 3.1%
2017*: 2.8%
2018*: 2.4%
2019*: 2.4%
Household saving rates 2.7% (2017)
Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015: 231.6%
2016: 236.3%
2017*: 235%
2018*: 237.1%
2019*: 237.7%
Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP) 2015: -3.8%
2016: -3.7%
2017*: -3.2%
2018*: -3.2%
2019*: -3%
Market value of publicly traded shares 2016: USD 4,955.3 billion
2017: USD 6,222.8 billion
2018: USD 5,296.8 billion
Largest Companies
Gunma Bank, Iyo Bank, Nippon Steel Trading, Suzuken, Juroku Bank, Hyakugo Bank, Hakuhodo DY Holdings, Seiko Epson, Shiga Bank, Hanwa, Toho Bank, Tokyu Fudosan, Ogaki Kyoritsu Bank, San-In Godo Bank, Nanto Bank, Hitachi, Central Japan Railway, East Japan Railway, Denso, JXTG Holdings, MS&AD Insurance, Seven & I Holdings, Japan Tobacco, Sumitomo, Panasonic, Canon, Nippon Steel, Orix, Mitsubishi Electric, Bridgestone, Toshiba, Marubeni, Daiwa House Industry, Japan Exchange Group, Sojitz, Shimizu, Kyushu Electric Power, Hoya, Meiji Holdings, Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Tohoku Electric Power, Tokyo Century, Kobe Steel, Oriental Land, Cosmo Energy Holdings, Terumo, Ricoh, Concordia Financial Group, Kansai Electric Power, Fujitsu, Asahi Group Holdings, Fujifilm Holdings, Recruit Holdings, JFE Holdings, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Murata Manufacturing, Kubota, Rakuten, Aisin Seiki, Kirin Holdings, Nidec, Astellas Pharma, Asahi Kasei, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Toppan Printing, Nitto Denko, Bandai Namco Holdings, Mitsui OSK Lines, Nippon Express, Haseko, Pearson, Hokuhoku Financial Group, SG Holdings, SBI Holdings, IHI, Nishi-nippon Financial Holdings, Kyushu Financial Group, Makita, San ju San Financial Group, Bank of Nagoya, Nomura Research Institute, Nippon Paint, Tomony Holdings, Isetan Mitsukoshi Holdings, Toyota Boshoku, Nippon Paper Industries, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company,, Fuyo General Lease, Mitsui Fudosan, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Komatsu, Suzuki Motor, Sompo, Shin-Etsu Chemical, Tokyo Electric Power, Sumitomo Mitsui Trust, Daikin Industries, Toyota Industries, Subaru, Mitsubishi Chemical, Fast Retailing, Toyota Tsusho, Mitsubishi Estate, Osaka Gas, Medipal Holdings, NEXON, Nippon Yusen, Kintetsu, Showa Denko, Shizuoka Bank, Alfresa Holdings, Lixil Group, OMRON, Nitori Holdings, Iida Group Holdings, Sekisui Chemical, Mebuki Financial Group, Mitsubishi Materials, Pan Pacific International Holdings, Yamaguchi Financial, NSK, Hachijuni Bank, Ajinomoto, Olympus, Renesas Electronics, North Pacific Bank, Minebea, Bank of Kyoto, Hiroshima Bank, Shimano, 77 Bank, Chugoku Bank, Tosoh, Shionogi, Dai Nippon Printing, Unicharm, Mitsui Chemicals, Koito Manufacturing, Fukuoka Financial Group, Shinsei Bank, Chugoku Electric Power, Daishi Hokuetsu Financial Group, Yamato Holdings, Eisai, Electric Power Development, Chiba Bank, Oji Holdings, Sumitomo Chemical, Tokyo Electron, Otsuka Holding, Isuzu Motors, Keyence, Japan Airlines, Fanuc, Dentsu, Mitsubishi Motors, Tokyo Gas, Daiwa Securities, Mazda Motor, Secom, Daiichi Sankyo, Inpex, Sumitomo Electric, Nintendo, Aeon, Resona Holdings, Sumitomo Realty, Idemitsu Kosan, Kao, Kyocera, West Japan Railway, Toray Industries, Chubu Electric Power, Sekisui House, All Nippon Airways, T&D Holdings, Nomura, Taisei, TDK, Kajima, Obayashi, Suntory Beverage & Food, AGC, Sharp, SMC, Shiseido, NEC, Yamaha Motor, Daito Trust Construction, Tokyu, Mitsubishi UFJ Lease, Sumitomo Metal Mining, Toyota Motor, Softbank, Mitsubishi UFJ Financial, Nippon Telegraph & Tel, Japan Post Holdings, Sumitomo Mitsui Financial, Sony, Honda Motor, Mitsubishi, Mizuho Financial, Nissan Motor, Tokio Marine Holdings, KDDI, Itochu, Mitsui, Dai-ichi Life Insurance, Universal Entertainment, Aozora Bank, Senshu Ikeda Holdings, Orient, Tokyo Kiraboshi Financial Group, JTEKT, Keiyo Bank, Japan Securities, Hyakujushi Bank, Hokkoku Bank, Yamada Denki, Jaccs, Kiyo Bank, Konica Minolta Business Solutions, Musashino Bank


Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services) 17.8% (2017)
Shares in world total merchandising export 3.79% (2018)
Shares in world total commercial services export 3.25% (2018)
Total exports USD 927.6 billion (2018 estimate)
Export commodities 14.9 motor vehicles, 5.4 iron and steel products, 5 semiconductors, 4.8 auto parts, 3.5 power generating machinery, 3.3 plastic materials (2014 est.)
Total imports USD 924.8 billion (2018 estimate)
Import commodities
16.1 petroleum, 9.1 liquid natural gas, 3.8 clothing, 3.3 semiconductors, 2.4 coal, 1.4 audio and visual apparatus (2014 est.)
Exports – major partners US 19.4%, China 19%, South Korea 7.6%, Hong Kong 5.1%, Thailand 4.2% (2017)
Imports – major partners China 24.5%, US 11%, Australia 5.8%, South Korea 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2017)

Competitiveness & Trade

Current account balance USD 175.3 billion (2018 estimate)
Current account balance by percentage of GDP 3.5 % (2018 estimate)
FDI inflows 2016: USD 17,751 million
2017: USD 10,430 million
2018: USD 9,858 million
FDI Outflows 2016: USD 151,301 million
2017: USD 160,449 million
2018: USD 143,161 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser 2015: USD 50,623 million
2016: USD 73,398 million
2017: USD 65,428 million
2018: USD 36,026 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014 Suntory Holdings Ltd, Beam Inc, United States, USD 13.9 billion / Investor Group, Grohe AG, Germany, USD 4.0 billion
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015 Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co Ltd, HCC Insurance Holdings Inc, United States, USD 7.5 billion / The Dai-ichi Life Insurance Co Ltd, Protective Life Corp, United States, USD 5.7 billion / Japan Post Co Ltd, Toll Holdings Ltd, Australia, USD 5.1 billion
Best countries for doing business Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

29 out of 190 countries

Starting a Business: 106 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 18 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 14 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 43 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 94 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 57 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 51 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 57 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 50 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 3 out of 190 countries
Global competitiveness ranking
6 out of 141 countries

Index of Economic Freedom Ranking: 30 / Score: 72.1 (Mostly free)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Population & Geographic Data

Time Zone UTC+9

Total Area 377,915 sq km
Total Population 1990 123.44 million
2000 126.83 million
2010 127.59 million
2015 126.98 million
2020* 125.76 million
Urban population as % of total population 1960 63.3%
1980 76.2%
2000 78.6%
2018 91.6%
Population median age 47.7 years
Population growth rate -0.24% (2018 estimate)
Life expectancy 85.5 years (2018 estimate)
% of population living on less than $3.10 a day N/A
Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index) N/A
Freedom House rating
Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)
Total telephone subscribers as % of population
Fixed: 49.9% Mobile: 139.2% (2018)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)
Internet users as % of total population 84.59 % (2017)

Language & Religon

Languages Japanese
Literacy N/A
Religions Shintoism 79.2%, Buddhism 66.8%, Christianity 1.5%, other 7.1%Shintoism 70.4%, Buddhism 69.8%, Christianity 1.5%, other 6.9% (2015 est.)

World Rankings

Population 125.76 M
Mercer Cost of living index Tokyo: 2nd
Osaka: 19th
Nagoya: 33rd

C02 Emissions per capita
9.54 metric tons per capita (2014)

Global Finance Rankings & Awards: Japan

Global Finance Magazine holds several conferences and awards ceremonies throughout the year to recognize the winning financial institutions and companies in a host of categories including World’s Best Trade Finance Banks, World's Biggest Banks, World's Safest Banks, World's Best Developed & Emerging Markets Banks, World's Best Internet Banks, and World’s Best Investment Banks.

Data Sources:

IMF World Economic Outlook

UN World Population Prospects

World Inequality Report

S&P Global Ratings


Fitch Ratings

IMF Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS)

UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

CIA The World Factbook

World Bank’s World Integrated Trade Solution

Forbes Global 2000