Browse a full set of economic indicators


Includes historical data for Kazakhstan’s Gross Domestic Product growth, debt-to-GDP ratio and more, as well as information on trade, banking and financial sector leadership.

Strong Economic Ties With Russia And China

Strategically located between Europe, Russia, and China, Kazakhstan serves as an important cross-continental transit route. Rich in hydrocarbon and mineral reserves, this country of approximately 20 million has embraced free-market economy principles since gaining independence from the Soviet Union. Bilateral treaties and trade agreements, including membership in the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), contribute to Kazakhstan’s economic appeal.

In recent years, the country’s business climate has further improved through increased privatization efforts, anti-corruption policies, and measures aimed at reducing the outsized role of monopolies and oligopolies in the economy. Supported by its healthy finance and significant foreign exchange reserves, Kazakhstan has also pushed diversification efforts, targeting sectors such as transport, pharmaceuticals and telecommunications. However, weaknesses persist, including regulatory complexities and workforce limitations, dependence on Russia and China for trade and security, as well as poorly developed infrastructure hindering economic growth.

Macroeconomy & Sovereign Data

Type of Government Presidential republic
Capital Astana
Sovereign Ratings S&P: BBB–
Moody’s: Baa2
Fitch: BBB
Total Population 20.2 million
Median Age 29.5
Adult Per Capita Income (PPP) 38,358.34
Total GDP (2023) USD 291 billion

Kazakhstan GDP & Economic Overview

Most Recent Content


Capital Raising & Corporate Finance

Kazakhstan: 2024’s Largest IPO Score So Far

Capital Raising & Corporate Finance

Kazakhstan: Fintech Hub

Emerging & Frontier Markets

Kazakhstan: Economy In Transition

Banking & Finance

Trade & Investment

Total Exports USD 57.9 billion (2022)
Leading Exports Packaged Medicines
Natural Gas
Broadcasting Equipment
Total Imports USD 86.0 billion (2022)
Leading Imports Crude Petroleum
Iron Alloys
Natural Gas                                                                      
Source: World Integrated Trade Solution

Kazakhstan Leading Companies

KazMunayGas (KMG) Energy, Exploration & Production
Halyk Savings Bank of Kazakhstan Financials
Eurasian Resources Group (ERG) Materials, Metals & Mining
Kazakhtelecom Telecommunication Services
Kazakhmys Materials, Metals & Mining
Kazatomprom Materials, Nuclear Fuel Technology, Consumer Services

Major Trade Partners — Import

Russia 42.5%
China 19.9%
Germany 4.4%
United States 3.3%
Türkiye 2.8%

Major Trade Partners — Export

China 16.2%
Italy 14.7%
Russia 11.6%
Netherlands 7.3%
Türkiye 4.9%

Data Sources:

IMF World Economic Outlook

UN World Population Prospects

World Inequality Report

S&P Global Ratings


Fitch Ratings

IMF Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS)

UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

CIA The World Factbook

World Bank’s World Integrated Trade Solution

Forbes Global 2000