Browse additional economic indicators and data sets

Nepal

Includes Nepal real Gross Domestic Product growth rate, with latest forecasts and historical data, GDP per capita, GDP composition and breakdown by sector.

Browse additional economic indicators and data sets, selected by Global Finance editors, to learn more about Nepal economic outlook, debt to GDP ratio, international trade performance and population trends. 

Basic Information

Government Type: Federal parliamentary republic

Capital City: Kathmandu

GDP & Economic Information

Macroeconomy & Sovereign Data

Central Bank Central Bank of Nepal
Currency Nepalese rupees (NPR)

International Reserves USD 8.3 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019
Gross Domestic Product – GDP USD 28.8 billion (2018, estimate)
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) USD 86.1 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP Data

Real GDP growth 2014: 6.0%
2015: 3.3%
2016: 0.6%
2017*: 7.9%
2018*: 6.3%

*Estimate
GDP per capita – current prices USD 972.4 (2018, estimate)
GDP per capita – PPP Intl$ 2,904.9 (2018, estimate)
GDP (PPP) – share of world total 0.07% (2019, estimate)
GDP – composition by sector agriculture: 25.0%
industry: 13.4%
services: 50.3%
(2018 estimate)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP) N/A
Inflation 2014: 7.2%
2015: 9.9%
2016: 4.5%
2017*: 4.2%
2018*: 4.5%

*Estimate

Inflation & Debt

Inflation 2014: 7.2%
2015: 9.9%
2016: 4.5%
2017*: 4.2%
2018*: 4.5%

*Estimate
Government Bond Ratings Standard & Poor’s: N/A

Moody’s: N/A

Standard & Poor’s / Moody’s (Updated January 2017)
Unemployment rate N/A
Household saving rates N/A
Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP) 2014: 25.6%
2015: 27.9%
2016: 26.1%
2017*: 30.2%
2018*: 32.6%

*Estimate
Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP) 2014: 0.7%
2015: 1.4%
2016: -3.1%
2017*: -6.7%
2018*: -4.3%

*Estimate
Market value of publicly traded shares N/A
Largest Companies N/A

Import/Export

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services) 8.8% (2018)
Shares in world total merchandising export 0.03% (2018)
Shares in world total commercial services export 0.02% (2015)
Total exports USD 3.3 billion (2018 estimate)
Export commodities Clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
Total imports USD 18.0 billion (2018 estimate)
Import commodities Petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine

Exports – major partners India 53.1%, US 11.8%, Turkey 7.2% (2017)
Imports – major partners
India 70.2%, China 7.5% (2017)

Competitiveness & Trade

Current account balance USD -2.4 billion (2018 estimate)
Current account balance by percentage of GDP -8.1% (2018 estimate)
FDI inflows 2013: USD 71 million
2014: USD 30 million
2015: USD 51 million
FDI Outflows 2016: $106 million
2017: $129 million
2018: $161 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser N/A


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – World Investment Report
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014 N/A
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015 N/A
Best countries for doing business
Overall ranking: 94 out of 190 countries

Starting a Business: 135 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 107 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 135 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 97 out of 190 countries

Getting Credit: 37 out of 190 countries

Protecting Minority Investors: 79 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 175 out of 190 countries

Trading across Borders: 60 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 151 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 87 out of 190 countries

World Bank – Doing Business 2019
Global competitiveness ranking
108 out of 141 countries

World Economic Forum – The Global Competitiveness Index 2019
Index of Economic Freedom
Ranking: 136 / Score: 53.8 (Mostly unfree)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Population & Geographic Data

Time Zone UTC+5.75

Total Area 147,181 sq km
Total Population 1990: 18.9 million
2000: 23.9 million
2010: 27.0 million
2015*: 27.0 million
2020*: 28.8 million

*Estimate
Urban population as % of total population 1960: 3.5%
1980: 6.1%
2000: 13.4%
2018: 19.7%
Population median age 23.6 years (2016 estimate)
Population growth rate 1.24% (2016 estimate)
Life expectancy 70.7 years (2016 estimate)
% of population living on less than $3.10 a day 14.7% (2010)
Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index) 32.8 (2010)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)
Freedom House rating Political Rights: 3
Civil Liberties: 4 (2017)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population
Fixed 2.98% Mobile 96.75% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)
Internet users as % of total population 17.58% (2015)

Language & Religon

Languages Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Bajjika 3%, Magar 3%, Doteli 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, Baitadeli 1%, other 6.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Literacy Total population: 63.9%
Male: 76.4%
Female: 53.1% (2015 est.)

(age 15 and over can read and write)
Religions Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

World Rankings

Population 28.8 M
Mercer Cost of living index N/A
C02 Emissions per capita 0.2 (2013)

Global Finance Rankings & Awards: Nepal

Global Finance Magazine holds several conferences and awards ceremonies throughout the year to recognize the winning financial institutions and companies in a host of categories including World’s Best Trade Finance Banks, World's Biggest Banks, World's Safest Banks, World's Best Developed & Emerging Markets Banks, World's Best Internet Banks, and World’s Best Investment Banks.


Data Sources:

IMF World Economic Outlook

UN World Population Prospects

World Inequality Report

S&P Global Ratings

Moody’s

Fitch Ratings

IMF Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS)

UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

CIA The World Factbook

World Bank’s World Integrated Trade Solution

Forbes Global 2000

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