Browse a full set of economic indicators

Poland

Includes Poland real Gross Domestic Product growth rate, with latest forecasts and historical data, GDP per capita, GDP composition and breakdown by sector.

Browse additional economic indicators and data sets, selected by Global Finance editors, to learn more about Poland economic outlook, debt to GDP ratio, international trade performance and population trends. Rankings of Poland best banks and safest banks are also available.

Basic Information

Government Type: Parliamentary republic

Capital City: Warsaw

GDP & Economic Information

Macroeconomy & Sovereign Data

Central Bank Narodowy Bank Polski
Currency Zlotych (PLN)
International Reserves USD 154.22 billion (2020)
World Bank, last updated 12/16/2021
Gross Domestic Product – GDP USD 655.33 billion (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) USD 1,412.30 billion (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021

GDP Data

Real GDP growth 2017 4.8%
2018 5.4%
2019 4.7%
2020* -2.7%
2021* 5.1%

*Estimate
GDP per capita – current prices USD 17,318.50 (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021
GDP per capita – PPP USD 37,322.87 (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021
GDP (PPP) – share of world total 0.98% (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021
GDP – composition by sector agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 28.2%
services: 57.5%
(2020 estimate)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP) 1.3% (2019)

OECD, retrieved January 2022
Inflation 2017 2%
2018 1.6%
2019 2.3%
2020* 3.4%
2021* 4.4%

*Estimate

Inflation & Debt

Inflation 2017 2%
2018 1.6%
2019 2.3%
2020* 3.4%
2021* 4.4%

*Estimate
Government Bond Ratings Standard & Poor’s: A–

Moody’s: A2

Standard & Poor’s / Moody’s (January 2022)
Unemployment rate 2014 4.9%
2015 3.8%
2016 3.3%
2020* 3.2%
2021* 3.5%

*Estimate
Household saving rates 6.9% (2020)
OECD, retrieved January 202
Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP) 2017 50.6%
2018 48.8%
2019 45.7%
2020* 57.5%
2021* 55.5%

*Estimate
Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP) 2017 0.1%
2018 1.2%
2019 0.7%
2020* -5.7%
2021* -3.1%

*Estimate

Market value of publicly traded shares USD 177.5 billion (2020)
World Bank / Market capitalization
Largest Companies Pgnig Group, PKN Orlen, Grupa PZU, PKO Bank Polski, PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna, Bank Pekao, KGHM Polska Miedz

Forbes Global 2000 (2021)

Import/Export

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services) 56.2% (2020)
World Bank – World Development Indicators (updated Feb 2022)
Shares in world total merchandising export 1.5% (2020)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Shares in world total commercial services export 1.3% (2020)
Total exports USD 333 billion (2020 estimate)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Export commodities Cars and vehicle parts, seats, furniture, computers, video displays (2019)
Total imports USD 292 billion (2020 estimate)
Import commodities Cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, office machinery/parts (2019)
Exports – major partners Germany 27%, Czechia 6%, United Kingdom 6%, France 6%, Italy 5% (2019)
Imports – major partners Germany 25%, China 10%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Competitiveness & Trade

Current account balance USD 14.8 billion (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021
Current account balance by percentage of GDP 2.3% (2021 estimate)
IMF – World Economic Outlook, October 2021
FDI inflows 2019 USD 16 billion
2020 USD 10.9 billion
2021 USD 10.1 billion
FDI Outflows 2019 USD 891 million
2020 USD 1.3 billion
2021 USD 1.8 billion
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser 2018 USD 131 million
2019 USD 1.8 billion
2020 USD 463 million
2021 USD –91 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014 N/A
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015 N/A
Best countries for doing business Overall ranking: 40 out of 190 countries (2020)

Subcategories:

Starting a Business: 128 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 39 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 60 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 92 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 37 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 51 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 77 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 1 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 55 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 25 out of 190 countries
World Bank – Doing Business 2020
Global competitiveness ranking 34 out of 141 countries

World Economic Forum – The Global Competitiveness Index 2019
Index of Economic Freedom Ranking: 39 / Score: 68.7 (Moderately Free)
The Heritage Foundation – 2022 Index of Economic Freedom

Population & Geographic Data

Total Area 312,685 sq km


Total Population 1990 38.1 Million
2000 38.3 Million
2010 38 Million
2015 38 Million
2020 38 Million
Urban population as % of total population 1960 47.9%
1980 58.1%
2000 61.7%
2018 60.0%
Population median age 41.1 (2022)


CIA World Factbook / Population median age
Population growth rate -0.26% (2022 est.)
Life expectancy 78.8 years


CIA World Factbook / Life expectancy
% of population living on less than $3.10 a day 0.4% (last available estimate, 2018)
Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index) 30.2 (last available estimate, 2018)
Freedom House rating Total score: 81/100

Status: Free

Political Rights: 34/40

Civil Liberties: 47/60 (2022)
Total telephone subscribers as % of population Fixed: 15.3%

Mobile: 130.4% (2020) (fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscriber
Internet users as % of total population 83.2% (2020)

Language & Religon

Languages Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%; note – data represent the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
Literacy Total population: 99.8%

Male: 99.9%

Female: 99.7% (2015)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Religions Catholic 85% (includes Roman Catholic 84.8% and other Catholic 0.3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentecostal), other 0.3% (includes Jehovah’s Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Church of Jesus Christ), unspecified 12.9% (2020 est.)

World Rankings

Population 38 million
Mercer Cost of living index N/A
C02 Emissions per capita
8.2 metric tons per capita (2018)

World Bank / CO2 emissions

Global Finance Rankings & Awards: Poland

Global Finance Magazine holds several conferences and awards ceremonies throughout the year to recognize the winning financial institutions and companies in a host of categories including World’s Best Trade Finance Banks, World's Biggest Banks, World's Safest Banks, World's Best Developed & Emerging Markets Banks, World's Best Internet Banks, and World’s Best Investment Banks.


Data Sources

CIA Factbook

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