Casual readers of the business press over the past year could be forgiven for thinking there is only one major company in Russia. The long-running soap opera of the so-called Yukos affair has so dominated headlines that it has virtually eclipsed all other news. But theres actually been a lot more to Russia recently than Mikhail Khodorkovsky and Co.As with much of Russia, the signals are confus-ingly contradictory and paint the pic-ture of an economy that is, on the one hand, expanding robustly and, on the other hand, crippled by capital flight and seismic shudders in the banking sector.
Russia has strong commodities prices to thank for much of its prosperity: Roughly three-quarters of the countrys exports are composed of fuel (oil and gas) and metals. But theres more to Russias growth than oil. Growth in consumer demand and capital spending remains strong, with retail turnover jumping 11% and fixed investment growing 13% over the first five months of 2004, according to Russian govern-ment statistics agency Goskomstat. The nominal average dollar wage per month, according to Moscow-based investment bank Renaissance Capital, leapt from $85 in 1999 to $227 in June this year.
Meanwhile, Russian President Vladimir Putin is using some of his sub-stantial political capital to push through a series of reforms that strip away large segments of the system of social benefits that are a carryover from the Soviet era, in favor of a more transparent and mar-ket-oriented approach. Other elements of the broad Putin reform program,such as administrative reform, power-sector reform and long-anticipated changes to the shareholding structure of govern-ment gas giant Gazprom, are moving forward, albeit slowly.
Storing Up Problems
But there are deep fissures in Russias seemingly sturdy macroeconomic faade. Perhaps most concerning is capital flight, which threatens to undermine Putins key achievements of stability and eco-nomic growth.Alexei Moisseev,an econ-omist at Renaissance Capital, argues that Russian authorities are in effect encour-aging capital flight. What the Russian authorities are doing is really quite coun-terproductive, says Moisseev. Theyre shooting themselves in the foot and po-tentially laying the groundwork for prob-lems further down the road.
Confidence in domestic investment has been seriously eroded by the Yukos affair, while the Central Bank of Russias contradictory aims of a weak ruble and low inflation are resulting in capital leav-ing the country.After an outflow of $3.9 billion in the first half of 2003, Moisseev estimates that $10.1 billion fled the coun-try over the same period in 2004.Thats a lot of money for a country that experi-enced foreign direct investment of just $1.1 billion in 2003.
The figures carry echoes of previ-ous crises. One of the hallmarks of Russias financial crisis in 1998 was sunny optimism on the part of for-eign investors at a time when locals were running for the exits. Recent evidence suggests that foreigners again arent as concerned about deterioration in the Russian investment environment as do-mestic Russian investors.Within the past few months, a few high-profile purchas-esby Heineken of two Russian brew-eries, by European tobacco firm Altadis of a local cigarette maker and by BNP Paribas of Russia Standard Bank, for ex-ampleindicate that many foreign in-vestors consider Russia an attractive in-vestment destination. Perhaps most significantly, US oil major Cono-coPhillips is seeking to buy up to a 25% stake in LUKoil, Russias second-largest oil producer. Meanwhile, although Russian shares are down 25% from early April 2004 all-time highs, theyre still up 8% over the past yearand up more than 15-fold since all-time lows in late 1998. Unfortunately, there may be little room for upside, since, excluding key under-performers Yukos and Sibneft, the Russ-ian market is near all-time highs. And valuations of the rest of the oils, which comprise roughly two-thirds of total market capitalization, are far from screaming buys on either a historical or comparative basis, says Caius Rapanu, senior analyst at Nikoil investment bank. Should LUKoil be valued close to the same EV/EBITDA level as the superma-jors? I dont think so, he adds.
Banking Sector Remains Fragile
Russias banking sector has also re-cently been under fire. Over the summer it was clearly exposed as one of the economys weakest links during the most serious banking crisis since the August 1998 implosion of Russias currency, bond market and banking sector. This time around, a severe case of the jitters in the banking sector began when the Central Bank of Russia revoked the li-cense of SodBiznesBank, a politically well-connected institution, amidst accu-sations of money laundering. A few weeks later, CreditTrust, a bank linked to SodBiznesBank, announced that it was entering voluntary liquidation following large deposit withdrawals. With inter-bank interest rates spiking and retail de-positors rushing to withdraw their de-posits as fears spread of a broad sector meltdownfueled by rumors of a gov-ernment black list of targeted financial institutionsthe banking sector looked to be heading into a vicious spiral.
The crisis was tamed in mid-July but only after claiming another victim, Guta Bank, the Russian banking systems 22nd-largest institution, which was tak-en over by state-controlled Vneshtorg-bank. In a bid to boost liquidity, the cen-tral bank reduced banks mandatory reserve to 3.5%, and the lower house of parliament hastily passed an interim de-posit insurance law that covered banks that were not yet accepted into the full deposit insurance scheme. Also, state savings bank Sberbank was encouraged to use its massive pools of liquidity to support the inter-bank system. Massive depositor outflows eased, and confidence in the stability of the sector slowly began to return. Things were really touch-and-go for a while,says one Lon-don-based Russia analyst who asked not to be named.If the central bank had waited any longer to plug the dike, we could have had a seri-ous systemic problem on our hands.
Russias most recent banking crisis may help improve overall levels of stabil-ity and transparency in the sector.In the end the crisis will aid the government in its quest to make Russian banks more competitive, remarked intelligence provider Stratfor.com.And it may accel-erate the process of implementing a wide-rangingand long-delayedre-form program focused on enabling con-solidation, improving corporate gover-nance, bringing capital adequacy in line with Basle requirements and improving transparency. But, as ever, the risk re-mains that implementation will fall far short of good intentionsand in the meantime, Russians have anywhere from $20 billion to $50 billion or more in mattress money, a potentially huge source of investment and growth going forward.
In the meantime, Russia remains a market rife with paradoxesof vast op-portunity, but with large downside for those not nimble enough to navigate its minefields.