Browse a full set of economic indicators


Includes historical data for Netherlands’ Gross Domestic Product growth, debt-to-GDP ratio and more, as well as information on trade, banking and financial sector leadership.

Economy Benefits From Trade Through Europe’s Largest Port

The Netherlands boasts a stable political environment, a strong legal framework, and a well-developed financial sector. With its high living standards, advanced infrastructure, and skilled labor force, this country of about 18 million people is also one of the largest recipients and sources of foreign direct investment globally. Further, its strategic location on the North Sea and the presence of Rotterdam’s port, Europe’s largest, as well as Amsterdam Schiphol, the fourth largest airport in Europe, make the Netherlands one of the most important trading centers in the world. Top industries include petroleum refining and chemicals, food processing, information technology and manufacturing.

However, the Dutch economy is not without weaknesses. Among them, vulnerability to fluctuations in regional economic conditions, high exposure to energy price fluctuations, and soaring levels of private household debt. Additionally, the nation faces aging-related fiscal pressures and labor shortages, compounded by relatively rigid labor regulations, pose further concerns.

Macroeconomy & Sovereign Data

Type of Government Parliamentary constitutional monarchy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital Amsterdam; note – The Hague is the seat of government
Sovereign Ratings S&P: AAA
Moody’s: Aaa
Fitch: AAA
Total Population 17.9 million
Median Age 42.1
Adult Per Capita Income (PPP) 77,789.01
Total GDP (2023) 1.1 trillion

Netherlands GDP & Economic Overview

Most Recent Content

Banking & Finance

Trade & Investment

Total Exports USD 826.7 billion (2023)
Leading Exports Refined Petroleum
Broadcasting Equipment
Packaged Medicines
Photography Equipment
Total Imports USD 827.3 billion (2022)
Leading Imports Crude Petroleum
Refined Petroleum
Broadcasting Equipment
Source: World Integrated Trade Solution

Netherlands Leading Companies

ING Group  Financials
Aegon  Insurance
Royal Dutch Shell  Oil & Gas Exploration & Production
Asml Semiconductor Equipment & Materials
Heineken  Consumer Staples, Beverages
Royal Ahold Delhaize Consumer Discretionary, Broadline Retail
Philips  Consumer Electronics

Major Trade Partners — Import

Germany 17%
China 10%
Belgium 10%
United States 8%
United Kingdom 5%

Source: World Integrated Trade Solution

Major Trade Partners — Export

Germany 23%
Belgium 11%
France 8%
United Kingdom 6%
United States 5%

Source: World Integrated Trade Solution

Data Sources:

IMF World Economic Outlook

UN World Population Prospects

World Inequality Report

S&P Global Ratings


Fitch Ratings

IMF Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS)

UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

CIA The World Factbook

World Bank’s World Integrated Trade Solution

Forbes Global 2000